1 Sep 21: updated State annotations, included key Paris Convention articles, added internal hyperlinks between parts, full-text search now available, legal changes of 1 July 21 added. See blog post for details.

PCT.AppCommented PCT - online (self-editable) or printed book

PCT.App tackles the well-known problem that the Articles define only basic matter, and the Rules have become so convoluted that they are difficult to comprehend.
Combining knowledge from 10 years of teaching PCT, and the highly automated IP.appify platform, we have created a pioneering legal reference for IP professionals who wish to go beyond the guidance provided in official WIPO user guides.

Useful for daily practice and essential for European Qualifying Exam (EQE) students.

Available as a printed book, or online for users who prefer digital access and want to tailor the references to their own requirements. New: subscribers can print-on-demand their own customized color copy.


Always double check the status of info with the latest official resources. Consult an authorised professional or legal counsel before relying on the information presented.


130 subjects in 18 partsLogical legal structure

130 SUBJECTS are organised into 18 PARTS by merging the order of the Articles with the chronological order of the WIPO PCT Applicant's Guide. Each SUBJECT includes the most relevant provisions - relevant paragraphs are repeated or referenced, less relevant parts are hidden. All Articles and Rules are included at least once. Overview of all 130 subjects (Sep 20).


Extensively commented & annotatedExtensively annotated law

Legal texts and comments are displayed side-by-side. Authors’ comments are assigned per paragraph, and include references to other provisions, external resources and annotations. Umbrella & implementing provisions are frequently indicated. Explanations & overviews are provided for complex subjects such as:

  • Legal Effects of Filing Date & Publication, Relationship between PCT & National Law
  • Entitlement to Priority, Claiming of Priority
  • Communications between rO, ISA, IPEA and dO/eO's
  • Loss of Rights in International Phase, Remedies, Loss & Maintenance of National Effect
  • Review in National Phase of Decisions by rO/IB, Excusing of Delays

48 sample pages of annotated law (Sep 20)


Similar structure to PCT Applicant's Guides

Where possible, the structure mirrors the PCT Applicant's Guide - Introductions to International Phase (AG-IP) & National Phase (AG-NP). This allows a straightforward jump to PCT.App if you want to know the relevant law. Click to download a more detailed overview.

PCT.AppAG-IP (International) - Cross-Refs to PCTApp (Sep 20)
1. What is the PCT?2. What is the PCT?
2. Filing an International Application5. Filing an International Application
3. Processing of Application by RO6. Processing of Application by RO
4. International Search: Processing of Application by ISA7. International Search: Processing of Application by ISA
5. Supplementary International Search by SISA8. Supplementary International Search
6. International Publication & Other Processing by IB9. International Publication & Other Processing by IB
7. International Preliminary Examination by IPEA10. International Preliminary Examination under Chapter II
8. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase11. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase
PCT.AppAG-NP (National) - Cross-Refs to PCTApp (Sep 20)
9. End of International Phase3. Time Limit for Entering International Phase
10. Acts to be Performed for Entry4. Acts to be Performed for Entry
11. Special National Phase Requirements5. Special Requirements to be Complied With in National Phase
12. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase6. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase
13. Entry into specific Regional & National Phases (EP & US)National Chapters - EP & US

Use wiComplete PCT Applicant's Guideth Applicant's Guides

As PCT.App concentrates mainly on the Articles & Rules, it is useful to use with my Complete PCT Applicant's Guide, which includes all official WIPO Guidelines. Also included are our Detailed Tables of Contents, overviews of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers:

  • Introduction to International Phase (AG-IP)
  • Administrative Instructions (AI)
  • Receiving Office Guidelines (RO GL)
  • International Search & Examination Guidelines (ISPE GL)
  • Introduction to National Phase (AG-NP)

R.12.4 BW (annotated & marked)Standardised layout & marking

Standard phrases in legal texts have been replaced by well-known abbreviations, such as IB, ISA, IPEA, rO, and dO. Inline comments in the legal text are sometimes used, such as /eO. Standardised marking is used to emphasize key words, time limits, fees, languages, and legal consequences, either in black & white (printed book) or color (online):

  • normal marking (book: solid underline, online: black underline) => main issues & requirements
  • strong marking (book: bold font, online: yellow highlight) => right-column annotation relevant for phrase
  • fees (book: dotted underline, online: green underline)
  • time-limits (book: dashed underline, online: orange underline)
  • languages (book: wavy underline, online: blue underline)
  • legal consequence (book: double underline, online: red underline)

Examples of layout & marking - printed book & online (Sep 20)


2. Filing an International ApplicationEfficient for exams

The extensive comments & annotations allow it to be used as-is for exams, like the EQE. During preparation before the exam:

  • learn the structure and distribution by answering as many legal questions as possible
  • use it with the PCT Applicant's Guide and Euro-PCT Guide
  • ignore parts not relevant for the exam  

During the exam

Step 1 = where in the procedure does the case takes place? - this gives the relevant PART:

  • Priority Filing, Priority Year
  • International Phase (Filing, Search, Publication, After Publication)
  • Optional International Phase: Supplementary Search / Examination, After Publication)
  • For subjects covering more than one PART, go to 8. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase
  • National/Regional Entry (Special case: EP Regional Entry => Euro-PCT)
  • National/Regional Phase
  • For subjects covering more than one PART, go to 12. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase

Step 2 = determine which SUBJECT(S) to look up by scanning the Detailed contents (Sep 20 (sample) (per SUBJECT: titles of explanation boxes, relevant Articles & Rules together with the provision titles).


Records of Washington Diplomatic Conference (1970)History, organization & finances

Comments & cross-references have been included based on the original and updated minutes from the Washington Diplomatic Conference (WDC 1970), where the legal text was finalised. Treaty provisions that deal with the WIPO organization, internal financing, treaty amendment and accession process are also commented. We provide a printing service for these WIPO texts - they are less relevant for applicants, but highly relevant for those studying the history and those who keep PCT up to date:

  • Part 1 What is the PCT includes principles, advantages & disadvantages, definitions from provisions, and the relationship between PCT & national laws.
  • Part 14 Technical Services deals with Art. 50-52
  • Part 15 Administrative Provisions deals with Art. 53-58
  • Part 16 Disputes deals with Art. 59
  • Part 17 Revision & Amendment deals with Art. 60-61
  • Part 18 deals with Treaty Accession, Entry into Force and Notifications with Art. 62-69

Index of Articles & RulesFind specific Articles / Rules

Although the order of Articles is respected where possible, it is not efficient to scan adjacent sections for adjacent Articles. Recommended is to use the Index of Articles & Rules ( Index Sample - Sep 20), which shows page numbers where each provision is at least partially included.

The page numbers found can be used to quickly check in the Detailed Contents ( Detailed Contents sample - Sep 20) which PART and SUBJECT is associated with each Article or Rule inclusion, so that a better choice can be made what to look up.

The WIPO provides an Index of Citations for AG-IP (Jul 20). To match, we have made our Index of Citations for AG-NP (Aug 20).


PCT.AppOrder standard printed book

It is available through Amazon in different countries. It is 660 pages (38 mm thick). A version printed on thin (50g) bible paper (21mm thick) is also available.

The marking styles are black and white only, using different underlining styles and bold text. It is available in English and German, and is regularly updated.


PCT.App onlineCustomise & self-edit your PCT.App

Subscribers can digitally navigate up-to-date legal texts on mobile devices, and tailor the contents to their own requirements. No need to transfer notes when the law is updated. See here for FAQ's.

  • Read & navigate: hyperlinked internal references to Articles & Rules, and external references to Guidelines & OJEO notices. Marking styles are in color, and can be personalized. Users can also define and apply two of their own marking styles - see here for more details.

  • Hide and add text: hide legal texts and comments you do not want to see. The text is not deleted permanently, and can be restored. Add comments and references in areas you struggle with. Subscribers to EPC.App can add bidirectional hyperlinked references.

  • Further shape to your logic: add Articles & Rules that you consider more relevant. Your comments are linked to legal paragraphs, so they appear wherever the paragraph is visible. Overviews of each section are generated automatically.
  • Never out-of-date: your adaptations are saved in a personal cloud, and legal texts are regularly updated automatically. Generate an A4 color printable pdf of your own PCT.App for printing in your office or a customized color copyvia a print-on-demand service.


PCT.AppCustomizable color copyNEW: order customized printed book

Since 1 Jan 21, subscribers can order a print-on-demand customized color copy of their own reference. It is approx. 600 pages, but it depends on the degree of customization. It is 25.4 x 17,8cm, printed on 60g paper.

You determine the content and the marking styles, using your preferred colors for the standard styles and two of your own styles. For example, standard styles may be redefined as:

  • normal marking (black underline, 1 pixel) => main issues & requirements
  • strong marking (yellow highlight, #FFF68F) => right column annotation relevant for phrase
  • time limits (light purple highlight, #FFDAFB)
  • fees (green highlight, #ADFFBA)
  • languages (light blue highlight, #94FFF8)
  • legal consequence (red underline, 1 pixel and red text, #FF0000)

EPC.App

Commented EPC Treaty (online & book)

EPC.App includes up-to-date legal texts and essential references & comments for a well-prepared candidate to quickly find the legal points at the EQE. It should preferably be used extensively to answer legal questions before the exam, so that the notes trigger the correct knowledge of the standard interpretation of law & established Case Law. For daily practice, it allows the most relevant information to be found quickly.

It is also available through IP.appify, allowing you to add comments & annotations as you study, to shape according to your own logic, and to make your own EPC.App that never goes out of date.

EPO as a PCT AuthorityIndexed EPO-EPC Guidelines Use with my EPC reference books:
- Indexed EPO-EPC Guidelines, with a detailed table of contents, an overview of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers.
- EPO as a PCT Authority (including indexed Euro-PCT Guide & EPO-PCT Guidelines with detailed tables of contents, overviews of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers.

Nothing in our training or study materials is to be considered as legal advice - our resources are intended for educational and informational purposes only. IP law is highly complex and continuously changing, so always double check the status with the latest official resources. Consult an authorised professional or legal counsel before relying on the information presented. In particular, the authors and Fireball Patents do not accept liability for the accuracy of the information or for any printing errors.