PCT.AppCommented PCT Treaty - online & book

PCT cannot be logically organised just using Articles & Rules. This reference uniquely provides all PCT Articles & Rules, commented by Pete Pollard, and distributed per subject. References between provisions are annotated. Additional explanation is also included for complex subjects such as remedies, representation and language requirements.

Useful for daily practice, and particularly useful for those studying for the European Qualifying Exam (EQE).

Available as a stand-alone book through Amazon. Also available through the IP.appify online platform, which allows students to further tailor the reference book to their requirements.


135 subjects in 18 partsLogical structure

135 SUBJECTS are distributed into 18 PARTS by combining the order of the Articles with the chronological order of the WIPO PCT Applicant's Guide. Each SECTION includes the most relevant Article, Rules & Administrative Instructions for a SUBJECT. In many cases, irrelevant paragraphs are hidden to avoid repetition. In some cases, paragraphs are repeated or a reference to a different SECTION/SUBJECT is included. All Articles and Rules are included at least once. Overview of all 135 SUBJECTS (Nov 19)


Exntensively commented & annotatedExtensively commented & annotated law

Combining knowledge from 10 years of teaching PCT, and the highly automated formatting by the IP.appify platform, we have created a unique PCT legal reference for IP professionals who wish to go beyond the guidance provided in the official Guidelines.

Explanations & overviews of legal requirements are provided for many SUBJECTS including:

  • Legal Effects of Filing Date & Publication, Relationship between PCT & National Law
  • Communications between rO, ISA, IPEA and dO/eO's
  • IB tasks other than Publication, such as Translation and Checking of rO Requirements
  • Loss of Rights in International Phase, Remedies, Loss & Maintenance of National Effect
  • Review in National Phase of Decisions by rO/IB, Excusing of Delays
  • Requirements for Sequence Listings & Biological Material Deposits

Similar structure to PCT Applicant's Guides

Where possible, procedural PARTS mirror the structure used for the PCT Applicant's Guide - Introductions to International Phase (AG-IP) & National Phase (AG-NP). This allows a straightforward jump to PCT.App if you want to know the relevant law or to get more details. Click to download a more detailed overview.

PCT.AppAG-IP (International) - (Jul 19) => PCTApp (Nov 19)
1. What is the PCT?2. What is the PCT?
2. Filing an International Application5. Filing an International Application
3. Processing of Application by RO6. Processing of Application by RO
4. International Search: Processing of Application by ISA7. International Search: Processing of Application by ISA
5. Supplementary International Search by SISA8. Supplementary International Search
6. International Publication & Other Processing by IB9. International Publication & Other Processing by IB
7. International Preliminary Examination by IPEA10. International Preliminary Examination under Chapter II
8. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase11. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase
PCT.AppAG-NP (National) - (Jul 19) => PCTApp (Nov 19)
9. End of International Phase3. Time Limit for Entering International Phase
10. Acts to be Performed for Entry4. Acts to be Performed for Entry
11. Special National Phase Requirements5. Special Requirements to be Complied With in National Phase
12. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase6. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase
13. Entry into specific Regional & National Phases (EP & US)National Chapters - EP & US

Use with Complete PCT Applicants GuideComplete Applicant's Guide book

As PCT.App concentrates mainly on the Articles & Rules, it is useful to use with my Complete PCT Applicant's Guide. This includes all of these indexed references with detailed tables of contents, overviews of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers:

  • Introduction to International Phase (AG-IP)
  • Administrative Instructions (AI)
  • Receiving Office Guidelines (RO GL)
  • International Search & Examination Guidelines (ISPE GL)
  • Introduction to National Phase (AG-NP)

Art 11 (annotated & marked)Standardised layout, annotations & marking styles

Overviews & explanations are provided in boxes, before or between provisions. The legal text is on the left, and comments & annotations are on the right, adjacent to the text. Standard phrases in legal texts have been replaced by well-known abbreviations, such as IB, ISA, IPEA, rO, and dO. Inline comments in the legal text are sometimes used, such as [/eO] after dO in provisions. Umbrella provisions & implementing provisions are frequently indicated. References to other provisions are commented or annotated to give context. Standardised marking styles are used - color online, black & white in the book - example of annotated Art 11 (Nov 19) with online marking:

  • normal marking (online: black underline, book: solid underline) = main issues & requirements
  • strong marking (online: yellow highlight, book: bold font) = right-column annotation relevant for phrase
  • fee-related (online: green underline, book: dotted underline)
  • time-limit related (online: red thick underline, book: dashed underline)
  • language-related (online: blue underline, book: wavy underline)
  • legal consequence (online: red underline, book: double underline)

8.15 RemediesEfficient for EQE

It is already extensively commented & annotated, with explanations & overviews, and can be used for the EQE as-is. During preparation before the exam, just:

  • learn the structure and distribution by answering as many Paper D legal questions as possible
  • get used to using it with the PCT Applicant's Guide and Euro-PCT Guide
  • learn to ignore the parts not relevant for EQE  

At the EQE

Step 1 = determine where in procedure it takes place - this gives the relevant PART:

  • Priority Filing, Priority Year
  • International Phase (Filing, Search, Publication, After Publication)
  • Optional International Phase: Supplementary Search / Examination, After Publication)
  • For subjects covering more than one PART, go to 8. Misc. Questions concerning International Phase
  • National/Regional Entry (Special case: EP Regional Entry => Euro-PCT)
  • National/Regional Phase
  • For subjects covering more than one PART, go to 12. Misc. Questions concerning National Phase

Step 2 = determine which SUBJECT(S) to look up by scanning the Detailed Contents (per SUBJECT: titles of explanation boxes, relevant Articles & Rules together with the provision titles).


Records of Washington Diplomatic Conference (1970)Comments on history, organization & finances

Many of the comments & cross-references between Articles & Rules are based on the original minutes & WIPO comments from the Washington Diplomatic Conference (1970), where the legal text was finalised. Where necessary, these have been updated to match the current state of PCT.

Treaty provisions are also commented that deal with the organization, internal financing, the treaty amendment process, and the treaty accession process are also commented. These are less relevant for EQE students, but highly relevant for those working in a patent office or involved in keeping the PCT up to date.

  • Part 1 What is the PCT includes principles, advantages & disadvantages, definitions from provisions, and the relationship between PCT & national laws.
  • Part 14 Technical Services deals with Art. 50-52
  • Part 15 Administrative Provisions deals with Art. 53-58
  • Part 16 Disputes deals with Art. 59
  • Part 17 Revision & Amendment deals with Art. 60-61
  • Part 18 deals with Treaty Accession, Entry into Force and Notifications with Art. 62-69

Index of Articles & RulesFind a specific Article or Rule

Although the order of Articles is approximately used, it is not efficient to look through adjacent SUBJECTS for adjacent Articles. Recommended is to use the Index of Articles & Rules, which shows page numbers where each Article and Rule paragraph is included. Each Article & Rule paragraph is included completely in the book at least once, but this Index does not distinguish between the whole provision or just a part. This version of Index of Articles & Rules is the corrected one for the first paper editions - see here (post of 6 Dec 2019).

The page numbers found can be used to quickly check in the Detailed Contents which PART and SUBJECT is associated with each Article or Rule inclusion, so that a better choice can be made what to look up.

It is a similar problem when looking for a specific Article or Rule in the PCT Applicant's Guide - the WIPO always provides an Index of Citations for their International Phase (AG-IP). WIPO does not provide a similar index for thier National Phase (AG-NP), so we have made our Index of Citations for their AG-NP.


PCT.AppOrder book through Amazon

Currently, it is not possible to print on thin bible-paper (50 gr) through Amazon in different countries. It is 720 pages (42 mm thick) with extensive comments, annotations and explanations by Pete Pollard.

The marking styles are black and white only, using different underlining styles and bold text. It is currently available in English only, but a German version is in preparation.

If you are planning to further annotate & comment the book during your study, we recommend using the online subscription instead (see below). It provides more control over adding / hiding text, you do not need to transfer your notes when a new version becomes available, and you can use personalised color marking styles.


PCT.App onlineSubscribe online through IP.Appify

PCT.App was generated using the IP.appify electronic platform to provide a more logical and organised annotated PCT Treaty. For an author, it is a very flexible and highly customisable digital toolbox to organise and shape the reference materials.

Subscribers get access to the latest digital version, a html-like editor, and automatically receive regular updates with law changes, new comments & annotations. See here for the FAQ's.

As a subscriber, you can read & navigate:

  • internal references to Articles & Rules, and external references to Guidelines & OJEO notices, are hyperlinked
  • marking styles are in color, and can be personalized - see here for more details
  • browser-based, so you can access on your phone

... and hide text:

  • hide comments, annotations you do not want to see in a particular SUBJECT. The text is not deleted, and can be viewed and made visible again.
  • hide parts of Articles & Rules - from a few words up to a whole provision

... and add text:

  • add comments, explanations & annotations in areas you struggle with
  • add bidirectional hyperlinked references between EPC & PCT

... and further shape your digital reference book according to your own logic:

  • add parts of Articles & Rules that you consider relevant to other SUBJECTS. You work with your own database, so annotations to part of a provision appear in all places where that part of the provision is included.
  • each section includes an automatically-generated overview of the explanations and provisions in that section

... and print your reference book whenever you want:

  • generate an A4 color printable pdf of your own reference book whenever you need a paper copy
  • print in your office or use a print service

EPC.AppCommented EPC Treaty (online & book)

The EPC.App comprises enough essential references & comments for a well-prepared candidate to quickly find the legal points at the EQE. These short notes can be scanned to trigger memory/knowledge of the standard interpretation of law & established Case Law. It should preferably be further annotated & personalized during study before the exam.

For daily practice, it allows the most relevant information to be found quickly.

It is also available through the IP.appify electronic platform allowing you to add comments & annotations as you study, and to shape according to your own logic.

It iEPO as a PCT AuthoritysIndexed EPO-EPC Guidelines useful for use together with my reference books:
- My Indexed EPO-EPC Guidelines, with a detailed table of contents, an overview of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers.
- My EPO as a PCT Authority (including indexed Euro-PCT Guide & EPO-PCT Guidelines with detailed tables of contents, overviews of major changes in last 3 years & page numbers.