Study Materials

A collections of useful links and downloads

NEW: Commented PCT Treaty (online or book) - see below

NEW: Commented PCT Treaty (online or book) - see below

JETZT NEU: Indizierte Richtlinien des EPA (siehe unten)

JETZT NEU: Indizierte Richtlinien des EPA (siehe unten)

PCT.App (1/10/19)

Traditionally, annotated laws & treaties follow the structure of the law itself, reciting Articles & Rules in numerical order, Students must master the inherent logic of the law, and the logic of the author who decides where annotations are included. But this approach breaks down with PCT - the legal structure is now convoluted & contradictory due to years of amendments to the Rules only. The Articles & Rules no longer reflect how PCT works in practice.

We have generated PCT.App using the IP.appify electronic platform to provide a more logical and organised commented PCT Treaty. Pete Pollard has also added additional explanations and summaries to speed up understanding of how PCT works.

It is suitable for daily practice, and for studying in preparation for the EQE. It is efficient when answering at the EQE as the logical structure allows the relevant parts of the law to be found quickly.

PCT.AppReferences between provisions are commented & annotated. Overviews are provided of different subjects, such as remedies, representation and language requirements.

Entry into the European phase is also covered, showing how the PCT requirements are translated into EPC Articles and Rules.

This PCT reference, with my extensive comments & annotations on the Articles & Rules, is available as a stand-alone book. It is sufficiently detailed for the EQE without further annotation.

It is also available online through the IP.appify platform to allow electronic reading, and for further individual customisation. Online, students receive automatic updates, and can further shape the standard reference according to their own logic.

Update 31/10/19:

  • Subscription including commented versions:

PCT.AppOnline, with my extensive comments & explanations - English
EPC.AppOnline, with essential author's references & comments - English / German

The EPC.App comprises just enough essential references & comments for a well-prepared candidate to quickly scan & find the legal points at the EQE. It should preferably be further annotated & personalized during study before the exam.

The PCT book is more extensively commented & annotated, with my explanations & overviews, and can already be used for the EQE. But learn the structure before the exam by answering as many Paper D legal questions as possible.

  • Order as 17x24cm stand-alone book:


720 pages (42 mm thick) with my extensive comments & explanations - English - Amazon

A version on thin (50g) bible paper (22mm thick) is also available


428 pages (26 mm thick) with essential author's references & comments - English / German - Amazon

Records of the Washington Diplomatic Conference on PCT (1970)

Between 25 May 1970 and 19 June 1970, the Washington Diplomatic Conference took place to finalise the text of the PCT.

We are simply providing a convenient printing service to make this useful document more easily accessible.No copyright is claimed - the text of this book is available for free download from the WIPO website. It is useful for anyone studying the PCT, and its history - on paper, it is more convenient to jump between the different sections.

As well as many comments from the delegations, it also contains the original text of the articles and rules as entered into force on 1 June 1978.

Most useful are the notes by the WIPO giving some background, how each provision relates to the rest of PCT and cross-references between the corresponding articles and rules.

The indexes are also quite detailed, allowing discussions to be found about particular provisions.

The book has been reduced to 165 x 241mm. It is 844 pages, and printed in black and white on thin 50gr bible-paper. It has been made a little larger than A5 to improve readability.

No copyright is claimed - the text of this book is available for free download from the WIPO website

  • Order as approx. A5 book (17 x 24cm):

WDC-PCT (1970)2.9cm thick844 pages (865 gr)

Complete PCT Applicant's Guide

PCT info is very fragmented. The Applicant’s Guide (AG-IP & AG-NP) cover most common issues, but there is a lot more available.

This book includes all the higher and lower levels of documents.

It includes:

  • Introduction to International Phase (AG-IP). Referenced in GL/PCT-EPO as “PCT AG I”.

  • Administrative Instructions (AI) for formalities officers at PCT authorities (referenced in AG-IP and GL/PCT-EPO as “Section xxx”.

  • Overview of available Applicant & Office forms

  • Receiving Office Guidelines (RO GL) for RO’s. Referenced in GL/PCT-EPO.

  • International Search & Examination Guidelines (ISPE GL) for ISA’s & IPEA’s. Referenced in GL/PCT-EPO.

  • Introduction to National Phase (AG-NP).

All parts include my detailed contents, page numbers, and sections with a major in last 3 years. It does not include PCT Articles and Rules, or any EPO Guidelines.

Suitable for everyday use by attorneys & administrators. Good for EQE preparation, as EPO-PCT Guidelines refer to AI, RO GL, & ISPE GL. Answers at EQE should be supported by PCT Articles, Rules & EPO-PCT Guidelines (IPREE R.22).

New: detailed contents & page numbers for AI, RO GL & ISPE GL. Also 10% bigger to improve readability.

1 Nov 2019 version:

  • Order as A5 printed book (16 x 23cm):

PCT Applicant's Guide
2.1cm thick684 pages
(660 g)
  • PCT fees & forms: 1 Nov 19
  • AG-IP: 11 Jul 19
  • AI: 1 Jul 19
  • RO GL: 1 Jul 19
  • ISPE GL: 1 Jul 19
  • AG-NP: 11 Jul 19

Indexed EPO Guidelines (EN or DE)

EPO no longer offers this on paper. So you have to print out the 960 pages yourself.

My version is printed on A5-sized 50g bible paper - convenient as a desktop reference, to take to oral proceedings, or for the EQE.

EPO publishes a new version every year on 1 Nov.

  • For EQE, text valid on 31 Oct in the year before exam is official version.

  • However, answers based upon 1 Nov. version are usually accepted (but note once in answer version used).

1 Nov 2018 versionIt improves on official version by:

  • providing single Detailed Table of Contents at front (instead of per part), to quickly scan paragraphs
  • using page numbers
  • indicating sections with major amendment in last 3 years

Legal citations & references are underlined, making them easier to spot.

It also includes the official Computer-Implemented Inventions (CII) Index, Alphabetical Keyword Index & List of Sections Amended


See blog post for advice on which version to choose

1 Nov 2018In-force: 1 Nov 18 - 31 Oct 19
Official for EQE 2020
1 Nov 2019In-force: 1 Nov 19 - 31 Oct 20Official for EQE 2021.
May use at EQE 2020, but note version once.

New: 2019 version is 10% larger, with larger font in Contents, to improve readability.
Jetzt neu: Version 2019 auf Deutsch

Order as A5 printed book:

1 Nov 20182.8cm thick
920 pages (730g)
1 Nov 2019 (EN)3cm thick
916 page (865g)
1 Nov 2019 (DE)3.2cm dick
982 Seiten (930g)

EPO as a PCT Authority

New: most important PCT reference materials from EPO, covering role as RO, ISA, SISA, IPEA, DO/EO.EPO as a PCT Authority

  • OJ EPO Decisions & Fees relevant for PCT
  • EPO PCT Annexes
  • Applicant Forms
  • PCT-related EPO communications
  • Euro-PCT Guide (EPG)
  • EPO-PCT Guidelines (GL/PCT-EPO)
  • EPO Guidelines (GL/EPO) – PCT part only (Ch. E-IX)

Does not include legal provisions, treaties or WIPO Guidelines.

This book can be used as a desktop reference, or to help when preparing for the European Qualifying Exam (EQE).

In 2017, the EPO-PCT Guidelines were added to the official list of EQE reference documents. The Euro-PCT Guide has always been a useful reference for the EQE.

For these guidelines, my Detailed Table of Contents are also included, showing page numbers & sections that have undergone a major change in the last 3 years:

  • Euro-PCT Guide (EPG)
    (As reference numbering was completely changed in 2019, both 2018 and 2019 refs are included)
  • EPO-PCT Guidelines (GL/PCT-EPO)
  • EPO Guidelines – PCT part only (GL/EPO E-IX)


1 Oct 20181 Jan 19: EPG
1 Nov 18:
(part E-IX only)
Official version
for EQE 2020.
1 Nov 20191 Jan 19: EPG
1 Nov 19:
(part E-IX only)
Official version
for EQE 2021.
If used at EQE
2020, note
version once
in answer

New: 2019 version is 10% larger, and a larger font is used in the Detailed Table of Contents, to improve readability.

Order as A5 printed book:

1 Oct 20192cm thick
612 pages (480g)
1 Nov 20192cm thick
636 pages (610g)

PCT References for EQE

Every year, on 31 Oct, WIPO produces a printable version of the complete Applicants Guide, including all annexes, specifically for the Pre- and Main Exams. The current version can be found here. But it is 2030 pages and much of it will never be required at the exam.PCT References for EQEI have produced this abbreviated & improved version to lighten the load and to save a few trees.

Using Regulations, past papers and comments from Examination Committees, I have limited it to adequately cover what you may need. In addition, I have added many useful overviews from the WIPO/EPO websites and OJEPO's which can speed up answering questions during the exam.

My book is available in two parts, and reflects the status on 31 Oct:

Part I: References

  • Useful overviews from WIPO website
  • Overviews of fees
  • Latest versions of AG-IP and AG-NP, with my Detailed Table of Contents

Part II: Annexes

  • Info from international and national annexes for relevant States only

EQE 2020 (status 31/10/19):

  • Download version:

Part I -
References (9MB)



Part II -
Annexes (5MB)



  • Order as A5 printed books (16 x 23cm):

Both parts must be added separately to basket:

Part I - References12mm (375g)380 pages
Part II - Annexes18mm (565g)580 pages

National Law & Validation for EQE

For the exam, up-to-date National Law info is needed. But these tables are no longer available to order on paper. The last official version is here, but uses the A3 table layout.

National Law & Validation for EQEMy book is made with the EPO html print function, resulting in a single A4 format and a bigger font.

Tables I and VIII are irrelevant for the EQE, so they are left out. I have added page numbers & an index, and validation overviews from the OJEPO for Morocco, Moldova, Tunisia & Cambodia. Georgia is also noted, although the agreement is not yet in force.

It also includes an overview of states showing their dates of accession to Paris Convention, EPC & PCT., PCT national entry time limits, whether PCT national routes are closed and whether validation is automatic after grant.

Tables II, IIIA, IIIB, IV, V, VIA, VIB, VII, IX and X are included for each Contracting, Extension and Validation state.

EQE 2020 (status 31/10/19):

  • Order as A5 printed book (16cm x 23cm):

National Law & Validation12mm (375g)380 pages

PCT Resources

To learn how PCT works, listen to these Learn the PCT videos, stop them regularly, and find the subjects in the PCT Applicants Guide.

EQE Blogs

Salted Patent BlogPete's tips & info to help trainee patent attorneys pass the EQE. Also on LinkedIn.

Training for Administrators & Formalities

  • Hands-on: Essential PCT Formalities
  • Cross-over: Trademarks & Designs for Patent experts
  • Cross-over: Patents for Trademark & Design experts
  • In-depth Patents & Utility Models
  • In-depth Trademarks & Designs
  • Advanced PCT

EQE Courses

  • Maastricht University Courses
  • EQELIBRIUM Mock Camp

Practice using "EQE paper"

For each paper , do the exams of the last 4-5 years.

You need to practice writing by hand - practice on A4 EQE paper to get used to the format..

You get official A4 sheets of paper during the exam to write your answer on.

You are only allowed to hand-in papers you made at the exam - no pre-prepared materials. However, you are free to take and use any materials and tables you want to help in analysing the papers, as long as they are not electronic.

This is a mock sheet you can print out and use for practice, but don't try and hand them in at the actual exam:

Mock_EQE_paper - practice.pdf